We’ve recently developed our own PHP NONCE library for use with custom programming. Our version is loosely based on the implementation found inside the core WordPress software. We would like to thank to the WordPress development team as we have used their software to develop our own library! Without their software, we would have to start from scratch!
What is a nonce?
Literally, the term refers to a number used once. In software development, it is often used as a security measure to ensure that certain links or forms are only available once, thereby preventing malicious attacks against the system.
Where would I use a nonce?
An NONCE offers an additional level of security where sensitive actions may take place within your application. Take the following line of code as an example:
This link was poorly thought out if the application has no other security measures in place. Anyone could begin deleting posts by simply pointing their browser at the above link and changing the post number.
Well designed applications would only make that link available if the user was logged into the system with appropriate permissions. Furthermore, the delete_post.php script would ideally check to see if the user was logged into the system and if the user had appropriate permissions to delete that post. Is this enough security though?
Here are just two scenarios that could circumvent the above security measures:
Depending on how the application’s user authentication works, it is certainly possible for a malicious user to spoof an authenticated user or to otherwise crack the authentication.
Additionally, if you are a legitimate admin of the above mentioned application it would be possible for me to trick you by sending you a link or to this script. Once you clicked it, the post would be deleted.
How an nonce prevents the above attacks
An NONCE is successful as an additional layer of security because it prevents actions initiated by links or REQUESTS from being used more than once. Every time a link or a form is printed on the screen, your NONCE functionality embeds a key / value pair to be sent to the receiving script. Every time that script is called, it checks for the key / value pair and then authenticates it on a pass / fail basis. If it passes, the action is performed, if it fails, the action is not performed.
The above link with an NONCE applied to it would resemble something like the following:
<a href=”delete_post.php?post=003&_nonce=9c5fbfabb1″>Delete Post</a>
The receiving script would then do the following:
Check to see if the user is logged in with appropriate permissions (standard security)
Check to make sure the NONCE key / value is set
Authenticate the received NONCE using a library of functions.
How does an nonce create and authenticate its key / value pairs?
The process of generating NONCE is a bit complex than usually. While there are no hard and fast rules for creating an NONCE, most libraries will include the following components when generating an NONCE:
A secret key or ‘salt’ stored only on the server
A user ID (optional – makes the NONCE only work with a specific user)
An action name: ie: ‘delete-post’
A timestamp (allowing the NONCE to expire if never used)
A database of used NONCEs (optional and not used in our library)
Using all of the above components, an NONCE may be generated like this: secret-salt + user ID + action-name + timestamp. All of this is thrown into a hash that the receiving script can unpack and authenticate (Most of the time, the timestamp will be modified before being included and hashed).
The receiving script doesn’t actually ‘unpack’ the received key, rather it recreates it and compares. For instance, the delete_post script would combine the secret salt (which it knows) , the current users’s ID , use the delete-post action name, and a timestamp (modified appropriately). If any one of those components are off, the NONCE value generated by the receiving script will not match the one sent by the initial script and the NONCE will fail to authenticate.
How to use our nonce library
Download the zip file and unpack
Include ft-nonce.php inside all your applications pages
Embed one of our two generating functions in your links or forms
Call the validating function at the top of your receiving scripts and do as you wish based on the validity of the NONCE.
If you need further example, you can check out the example here. The PHP file source file is included in the zip .
We’ve only deployed this once and value your feedback. We will be more than happy to modify, enhance, and correct bugs as reported. Feel free to test our feature, implement it in your projects, but do not forget to inform us about the quality of it! Feel free also to send us suggestion! The more people use this feature, the more valued our work is and that is why we encourage people to use it and test as many times as possible!
Today’s technology has so evolved that our little children from early age know how to use the web and browse it. Sometimes, we just want to protect them from seeing inappropriate content that is not age-relevant, so we want to add the password to a certain page, especially if you own a website. In any way, a password protected page is something that you can create and eliminate the possibility for children to see something that is not appropriate for their age. How to do this in WordPress? Is it complicated or you can do it on your own?
WordPress allows you easy password set up
Hiding your content from a certain audience (children in this example) is a common task that administrators do. You can even lock the whole website that you cannot access to unless you have the right password. WordPress is the best online platform for creating your website and allows easy updating, managing and publishing of content. On top of that, you have useful commands like the password protection to ensure that only people you want access to your website or a post. Do follow the small tutorial below in order to set the password protection.
The very first thing you need to do is to log in to your website as the administrator so you could make changes and have permissions for such actions. Now, go to the page or post you want to protect and click on EDIT command. Once you slick, you will see in the upper left corner EDIT THE VISIBILITY and click on it. The next thing is to click on PASSWORD PROTECTED and type in the password you want. Make sure you use the combination of upper case, lower case, numbers and special characters in order to produce strong password. Once you type it in, click on OK, and click on UPDATE button in the lower right corner of the window. Now just publish the post/page, load it again and check if it asks for password to access it.
You can check all the pages and posts that do require a password to access them in the list of all pages and posts. Also, you have the ability to mark it as PRIVATE so no one could see it except the EDITOR and ADMINISTRATOR. Though this is not very useful for restricting the content, it may come useful when you want to publish a post or a page just to see how it looks like on your website.
Use strong passwords!
Kids often want to break the password and will try in many different ways to do this, so make sure you use very strong password that has a lot of characters. This will make it impossible to crack it as the combinations are endless and no CPU could calculate all the combinations for it. Always use upper case, lower case, numbers and special characters to increase the strength of your password.
Tampa craigslist is an online advertisement company. The platform is designed to promote your advert all over the world for free. This website is where people come to sell their old stuff and also buy new ones. Statistics have it that there are over 60 million subscribers, and over 80 million ads are posted every month.
Among these ads, you would expect to see some OUTRAGEOUS items listed for sale. We made the research and found some. Here are 10 of the OUTRAGEOUS Things People sell on Craigslist Tampa:
What Are The 10 OUTRAGEOUS Things People sell on Craigslist Tampa? You will see, weapons, ammunition, sex trafficking, pornography, body parts, medical devices, hazardous materials, alcohol or tobacco, pet sales, and several other items.
The majority of these items are prohibited on craigslist. However, because there are many ads coming up per time, these things find their way on the platform. This is why there are systems designed to help curb the sustenance of such an ad.
10 OUTRAGEOUS Things People sell on Craigslist Tampa
firearms such as a gun and its components are prohibited to be sold on. This means they will either not pass through the confirmation period. However, if they do, there is a high probability of it getting flagged down. Other prohibited weapon include; BB/pallet, Spear guns, and stun, etc,
Ammunition is also prohibited from sales on craigslist. A gun and its bullet is a perfect example of the union between weapon and ammunition. The gun is a weapon while its bullet is the ammunition. Other examples include; cartridges, gunpowder, explosives, etc.
trafficking humans for sex and its kind is a degradation of human life. It is illegal to do this in several countries of the world. Craigslist is not exempting itself from banning the act.
there are several opinions on the acceptance or rejection of pornography. Several countries legally frown at the act while some consider it human rights issues. However, craigslist been an internet-based platform is leaving its credibility to no chance. It is, therefore, prohibited to offer pornographic services or its substance on craigslist.
people try to sell different body parts in exchange for money. Examples of body parts up for sales include; arm, kidney. Liver, sperm, etc. Isn’t it outrageous to find that people try to sell these things that require medical supervision in order to ensure a successful exchange? Craigslist actually thinks so. The sale of such is, therefore, prohibited.
certain medical devices are prohibited for sales on craigslist. Some of these medical devices are products that require the prescription of medical personnel or the supervision and direction before such a product is used use.
Hazardous substances are usually labeled with tags like; WARNING, CAUTION, POISONOUS, TOXIC, FLAMMABLE, REACTIVE, CORROSIVE, etc. These substances are usually regulated because of how dangerous it is to use them in an uncontrolled or uneducated manner. They, therefore, are not sold generally to anyone and everyone. Having possession of any hazardous substance and trying to sell them to the public is generally prohibited. Craigslist is not an exception in this.
Alcohol or tobacco:
it was reported how criminals steal pets and then come over to craigslist to sell them. This and other reasons contribute to why it is prohibited, according to the term of use, to sell pets on craigslist.
properties whose serial number has been removed or it has been changed are assumed to be stolen. The sales of this type of property are prohibited
How Craigslist Prevent Posting Of OUTRAGEOUS Things
Because the platform is user self-published, it might be difficult to totally control the posting of outrageous things. However, efforts are made to control the flooding of such which include the following:
Clearly defined Term of Use:
The management of Craigslist has constructed an easy-to-understand term of use. Carefully stating out items that are not to be posted as ads on the platform.
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What If My Ad Isn’t Prohibited But It Was Deleted?
In a situation like this, your ad is most probably flagged by users, flagged enough to make the system algorithm delete it automatically.
If you are certain about your claims, you can then go ahead and write or call customer care.
Management will take a careful look at your claim and decide if it is valid. If it is, then, your ad will be restored and you might as well be compensated.
How can I avoid flagging on Craigslist?
Sometimes, your competitors try to flag your post so as to prevent you from scaling ahead of them. Pay no attention to them.
Trying to avoid flagging requires that you pay attention to some few things. That your post isn’t outrageous, is not enough reason to keep your ad afloat. The ad could get flagged down if you seem insensitive and unappealing to the community of viewers.
The major way to avoid getting flagged out is to focus on increasing your viewer’s rate over the flag rate. This is based on how Craigslist flagging system works.
Your focus, therefore, must be on constructing your post in a way that will satisfy Craigslist as well as the community of users and viewers.
Established in the year 2014, Backpage was the go-to site for selling adult related services. It later became a subject of investigation for the government and eventually got shut down after 15 years of operation. By then, it had become a platform for illegal activities.
Today, in the absence of Backpages, we have Leolist. But Leolist is not just a site where adult stuff is permitted for sale, other great stuff is permitted to be sold and bought. This leaves us to ask, Is This Backpages Alternative Legal?
Leolist Toronto: Is This Backpages Alternative Legal? Yes, it is. Based on the fact that an escort service is legal in Canada, Leolist remains legal.
The Legality Of Leolist In Canada
Canada has the hand of the law against prostitution. Prostitution in the sense that, two adults meet in agreement to practice adult activities in exchange for an agreed upon price.
However, in Canada as well, escort services are not illegal. Escort service is defined to be a companionship service. When adults plan to meet, they are said to enjoy companionship. In the end, compensation is paid. The payment does not make the escort service a prostitution service.
It is totally legal to compensate someone for spending their time with you. This is done with every other job as well. You are paying for someone’s time. There is no difference between the escort services. Sex and some other adult stuff are not mandatory in escort services. It’s only one of the many ways to companionship.
If sex and adult stuff occurred during the process of keeping the company, this is not seen as prostitution. Whatever happens between the adults stays between them. These reasons make Leolist legal in Canada.
On Leolist, there are many other items to sell and buy other than escort services. Leolist serves as a platform that offers the opportunity to meet those who can provide escort services alongside other services provided.
Is Leolist Safe?
Like every other similar service provider on the Internet, Leolist isn’t without its own share of the challenges.
One major challenge faced by Leolist is the legal challenge. Though it is currently accepted legally in Toronto, Canada, the sustenance of this legality remains unsure. Considering that many similar platforms have been shut down in the past, a case study of Backpages, the law might turn against Leolist anytime as well.
Also, considering several petitions against Leolist, many feel the platform should not be allowed to remain and they are vocal about this conviction. Many others feel the platform is only there to help and it isn’t necessarily harmful.
Recently, about 4 human trafficking cases have been linked to Leolist. But then there is a school of thought that says it should not be shut down. It says shutting it down could be of more harm than good and could make investigations more serious.
However, we can’t shy away from the fact that the site is recently becoming a platform for human trafficking. Though this does not apply to the escort service section only, it can happen during the buying and selling transactions in other sections as well. This is common to all platforms with similar services; it’s not unique to Leolist.
This is why you need to exercise caution either as a buy or a seller. There are precautionary steps to be taken while trying to buy or sell.
What Are The Precautionary Steps To Take On Leolist?
Because it is the internet, anyone can claim to be what they are not. You, therefore, need to stay savvy if you are going to make any transaction online most especially dating. Here are a few precautionary actions to take;
Know who you are talking to:
agreed, this is online interaction. However, you need more than the person’s name or picture. If you are about to buy a product, you need more than the products picture and seller name. You need to ask enquiring questions and more questions to get to know who you are talking to. This also applies to sellers trying to sell to customers. Know your customer at least to a satisfactory level. Trying to find a date or an escort? Get to know who the other person is.
it is appropriate to speak to the other person before you set up a meeting. Get their telephone number and an email address and speak to them frequently prior to meet up.
Check them out online:
the advantage of the internet is that we all have a trail online. Run their name and every other information you have through the internet and find out who they really are. Are they truly human or are they the person whom they claim they are? Gather as much information you need to convince yourself about the person.
Don’t hesitate to delete:
if after the entire search you are still not satisfied, be sure to confidently delete such person and then move on. If you find an inconsistency in the information they offer, they are most likely going to be hiding something from you. It may be dangerous to go ahead to meet them. Don’t hesitate to delete.
Set up the first meeting in public place:
never agree to meet a person in a close area especially on the first met. Never give your home address to anyone. Every first meeting should be in a public place.
Leolist Attempts To Prevent Harm:
As Leolist has been recently linked to cases of human trafficking it is important that users of the platform remain careful. The management of Leolist has provided the means by which to report offenses.
If you as a user notice any wrongdoing from another user, you have the privilege to report such user and actions will be taking in regards. This way, the community protects itself and remain safe. Check Out T2 Online for tips on how to choose a Psychic.
With over 60million users, Craigslist is one of the leading e-commerce sites. Statistics show that about 80 million advertisements are posted on Craigslist every month from about 70 different countries. With this much ad, how do you find what to buy or sell as an aspiring seller?
The question now is: what are the AMAZING things people sell on craigslist new Hampshire? We made our research and here is what we found;
What Are The 10 AMAZING Things People Sell On Craigslist New Hampshire? People sell houses and apartments, furniture, cell phones, electronic gadgets, baby kits, automobiles, and Bicycles. People do sell services on Craigslist such as trucks repair, plumbing services and so on. Businesses are also advertised on craigslist for sale.
There are several amazing things to sell on craigslist to the people of New Hampshire. You also need to know how to get the item you need. The site has classified products and services into categories.
As a buyer, visit the category that has the item you need. As an aspiring seller, post your item in the appropriate categories and you’ll start making profits.
10 AMAZING THINGS PEOPLES SELL ON CRAIGSLIST
Houses and apartments:
If you are looking to buy a house in New Hampshire, you should consider visiting craigslist. There, you’ll find a list of several houses ready to be sold from which you can choose to buy.
Are you looking to change the aesthetics of your apartment and you thinking of getting a new set of furniture, craigslist is a place to visit. You’ll find beautifully crafted furniture up for sale. The good news is that you can also put up your former set of furniture for sale and you’ll get a buyer in no time.
Mobile phones have become an integral part of us. If you are looking to get a new piece of mobile phone, craigslist is there to serve you. Mobile phone sellers put up devices from their store on the platform. You can easily get one for yourself.
Sellers of electronic gadgets find craigslist a place to put their product for sale. Buyers as well find the platform a good place to make purchases of electronic gadgets.
It’s easy to furnish your baby room with toys and many other baby kits when you shop on craigslist. You will come across baby kits that are of the latest design. You will also meet sellers who hope to sell their child’s used toys which you can buy at low prices.
Looking to buy a car? Visit craigslist. Car dealers look to reach a large audience of customers using craigslist as a platform. Both brand new and used cars are sold on craigslist. Motorcycles are not left behind in the types of automobiles which are sold on craigslist.
Looking to buy a bicycle for yourself or for your children? Amazing bicycles are sold and can be bought on craigslist.
Products are not the only thing sold on craigslist, you can also get services such as truck repair. So, if you need to repair your truck, you should consult craigslist. You will find a list of truck repairer in New Hampshire which you can hire to repair your truck.
When you need quick plumbing services in your house, isn’t it amazing to consult craigslist and find exactly what you need? Craigslist allows you to come in contact with a plumber within New Hampshire which you can hire to fix the plumbing problem in your house.
Craigslist is an all-round market place. Isn’t it amazing to find that you can buy a fully-grown business on craigslist? Well, that’s the beauty of the platform.
How To Buy Amazing Things Safely From Craigslist
Find the item you want to buy
There are several amazing things sold on craigslist. There are different categories for each one. You’ll find the item you want under the category created for it.
Check if the price is right
You definitely do not want to buy an item from a seller more than the price another seller would sell it. You sure would want to save money by searching out the best price for the item.
Next is to vet the seller properly
Make sure you get the name and phone number of the seller. Call them and talk to them on phone about the item. Ask questions that are detailed about the product. Make sure this is done over a multitude of calls and, or emails. Pay attention to how they respond; you will be able to decide if they are a genuine seller.
You should also look up the seller. Use their name to find any record about them. If there is none, or that the things you see are not related to the things you have been told, there is a chance the name you were given was fabricated.
Buy the Item
When you have gone through the above steps and you are satisfied with your findings, go on and pay for the item. Never pay for the item until you set your eyes on it. Meetings should be held in open spaces. When going, go with a friend who will stay at a distance away from you. Then do the final physical inspections on the item before you pay.
These steps are only a precaution. There is usually no cause for alarm and nothing is probably going to go wrong. Make a purchase with confidence; that’s what you need the most.
Red Flags to buying an item on craigslist;
There are certain seller characters that once you take note, that listing is most probably not genuine. Some of these characters include:
Consistent grammatical and spelling error:
Notice how the seller puts their words together. Once the grammatical error and spelling mistakes are unbearable and consistent, that’s a red flag.
The seller should be able to post the actual photo of the product if he has it in stock. When a seller uses the general photo of an item, request for actual photo of the item. If the seller is unable to produce it, that’s a red flag.
Repetition of ads in several places:
This shows how desperate the seller is to get someone, either to scam or sell to. The latter is most unlikely.
Too good to be true:
Once you notice a deal is too good to be true, usually, that’s the case. Scammers usually offer such deals to attract people.
These rules apply to both buyers and sellers on Craigslist. As a seller, you need to be watchful how you portray yourself to prospective customers.
What does it cost to sell on Craigslist?
All advertisement posting on craigslist is free. However, there are a few exceptions. That is, certain postings are not free.
Postings relating to Jobs in Houston and some other selected areas are not free. Advertisement for rental apartments in New York area will cost you $10 and all by-deal categories in the United States will cost you from $3 to $5. Find below the list of other categories that are not free:
Cars and truck by-dealer and by-owner in the United States, Vancouver BC cost $5.
Furniture by-deals in the United State, Vancouver BC will cost $3.
Gigs in the United States and in some selected areas in California will be charged at $3 to $10.
Service listings in the United States and in California cost $5.
Every category has the fees to be charged as listed. Any other category that has no fee listed is free.
With over 60 million users, the user base of craigslist keeps increasing. Anyone who has something to sell has the freedom to list any product as long as it is legal. Crazy things, sometimes do not mean illegal. Some crazy things are actually legal.
With over 80 million ads posted per month on craigslist, you will expect to meet some crazy items been listed as well. Find out 10 CRAZY things people sell on craigslist Augusta here.
10 crazy things people sell on craigslist Augusta include; Used Casket, Crystal Pepsi with a receipt, a Truckload of firewood, a crashed car, and transfer of disease. People also try to sell crazy stuff like 400-gallons of gasoline for exchange, a $2-dollar bill for higher dollar value, a used headset for an unbelievable price, used Mirena IUD, fingernails clipping collections.
Probably the list of items above seems too CRAZY for you and you don’t understand what they are, see details below;
What Are The 10 Crazy Things People Sell On Craigslist Augusta?
Several questions probably running through your mind. You are wondering; who used the casket? How did they get it out? Etc. Well, the seller’s grandmother died and she was buried using the casket. But because they could not meet up with payment of the burial plot, the plot was repossessed. They had to move the grandmother out. The casket was cleaned and put up for sale. Will you buy?
We know the ideal Pepsi to be dark-colored. However, it might interest you to find that someone manufactured a Crystal clear Pepsi and is trying to sell it.
A Truckload of Firewood:
Alright, firewood is necessary at some point especially when you need to create fire. But then, who wants to import firewood from a far distance, and then pay heavily for it? This can be gotten very close to you for a lesser price. The idea that it is advertised online makes it crazy. But then, anything valuable for business, right?
When you are trying to sell a car, you will, at least, want to put it into good condition so as to get the best price for it. Isn’t it crazy to try and sell a crashed car without repair? A seller did this, and placed a heavy price of $7000. The question is: who will spend that much for a crashed car?
Transfer of Disease:
So, an ad was placed on craigslist. It reads “come over and catch the flu. Everyone else has it, you’re gonna get it anyway. Sick of work, you pay me $200, come over; I give you the flu and you spend the week, umm playing video games or whatever… you can’t lose.” Crazy, right?
400-gallon of gasoline:
Ok, gasoline is essential. However, what makes this listed item crazy is the condition around it. A seller will offer anyone the 400-gallon gasoline but he doesn’t want money. He will offer it in exchange for anal sex. Isn’t that awkward?
$2 dollar bill:
Owing a $2 billing could be considered an asset because of its scarcity. Well, this is what this seller thought when he put up an ad to sell a $2 bill: Well, the catch is that you will only have the bill if you can pay $300 for it. Seriously?
Used Bluetooth Headset:
This is an important piece, especially if you are a lover of good sound. However, trying to sell a used Bluetooth Headset for a price way higher than you will get a brand new piece, is ridiculous. But the seller who posted the ad doesn’t think so.
Used Mirena IUD:
IUDs are awesome, right? They are useful when you get them from the appropriate quarters. Who thinks buying a used IUD online and then fixing it yourself, is the appropriate way to go about it? Well, a seller suggested this and hoped to sell her used IUD.
Finger Nails Clipping Collections:
So, after a seller clips off his nails, he gathers them together. This was done over a long period of time. He then tried to sell these as an item on craigslist.
How do I put an ad on Craigslist?
By now, you probably have the understating that anyone can place an ad on craigslist. If you have an item you no longer need in your home and wish to sell off, craigslist is a place to do this. But, how do you do it? Find below step to put an ad on Craigslist.
Visit Craigslist website
Choose the state you reside
Click on the post to classify button: You will need to choose how the item will be sold. Will you be selling yourself or you hired someone to sell for you? These are two options called: “for sale by dealer” and “for sale by owner”.
Click on the category page: Each ad on craigslist is classified for easy search. Choose which category your item falls under.
Enter the posting information: Here is where you tell viewers about the item and how to contact you.
Submit pictures of your item.
Check your listing for accuracy: Make sure you are not posting wrongly so as to get the needed attention for sale.
Lastly, click on the continue button: Your ad will be posted once you’ve done this.
How much does it cost to run an ad on Craigslist?
Advert posting on craigslist is free of charges. However, there are few exceptions with pricing from $5 upwards.
You’ll find the posting fee in each category. Any category without posting fee indication is free. It is also important that you learn about affiliate marketing to get the best from online marketing. Websites like Young Upstarts helps you understand the basics.